The Rashidun caliphs biographies

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The Rashidun caliphs biographies

Post by BOSSMANTOSSCAN on Tue Jul 11, 2017 11:59 am

Hey guy's looking forward to joining the community here, like others i am fan of tigerstarrs videos and would like to contribute as much as possible to site.  To start off the one thing which I can perhaps call myself a semi expert in is early Islamic history so i decided that perhaps i could help enlighten others to this part of history. what follows is an essay i did back in the day for high school, its a basic overview of the first four Islamic rulers, i will be doing a more indept biography for each of them so be patient, I intent to provide sources as much as possible and that will take a little time.

As the prophet Mohammed lay dying he called out continuously “send out the army of Osama”, “send out the army of Osama” 20 years ago Mohammed had been a simple merchant, 15 years ago he been the leader a prosecuted reform movement now as he lay dying he was the ruler of half of Arabia, he had received the official submission the other half as well that of Persian Egypt, a Persian province and Ethiopia.

Three years ago, the Romans had challenged the Muslim’s armies at Muta and beat them soundly killing Mohammed adopted son Zaid, Osman was Zaid son by his African wife and he was to a avenge his father with an army of 3000. With the words “take me away to the highest companion, to the highest companion” with that Mohammed expired, as news of his death reached over Arabia the tribes erupted in rebellion, renouncing their submissions, within a week the Muslim empire had been reduced to the coastal plain that Mohammed had conquered, the new Ethiopian Negus refused to submit, the Persians had evacuated Egypt and the Romans retook the province while the government of Persian Arabia remained loyal its army turned traitor.

 Weeping by Mohammed bedside was Abu Bakr, he and Mohammed had been friends since childhood and he had been among the first three to become Muslim, Abu Bakr had worked tirelessly for Islam spend almost all of his wealth on freeing Muslim’s slaves who been abused by their owners and in the Muslim government he was the foreign minister, because of his vast knowledge on the genealogy of Arabian tribes. In the panic after Mohammed’s death Abu Bakr was the rock of stability and soon was elected leader of the Muslim’s as the first caliph Abu Bakr knew swift action was required first he sent out the army of Osama, which contained the entirety of the loyal forces, the reaction among the Arabs and rebels was predictable they backed off if the Muslim’s could attack the Romans they must have some hidden armies.  When Usama’s army returned Abu Bakr put them under the command of the famous Khalid ibn al Walid and sent them out as a mobile column with orders to squash any rebellion, over the next two years the loyalist gained the upper hand the initial army was bolstered when many tribes fell into civil war at the approach of the Muslim armies as hidden loyalist reveled themselves, in the Persian Arabia province the daughter of the governor personally killed the leader the  traitorous army while her brother gathered loyal forces in the hills,  The rebellion was finally quashed in the battle of the bloody garden and the rebels submitted once again, Abu Bakr gathered his forces once again in mecca for a victory parade and as the men marched passed they were ordered to keep on the march, to where? they asked, to the Roman border came the reply. Abu Bakr didn’t have in mind a mere revenge raid he planned on total conquest, the scheme was audacious the Roman empire had been weaken, yes, by 23 years of war with Persia but it had won that war, the leader of empire Heraclius was a legendary figure who had never lost a battle and was generally renowned as a living saint even by Muslim’s, the Roman army number almost 200,000 battle hardened men as if to compound the difficulty Abu Bakr decided to also invade Persia.

This decision could be compared to invading both America and the Soviet union in the decade after world war two was made even harder by Abu Bakr’s insistence that only loyalist participate in the conquest. Nerveless the invasion went ahead but Abu Bakr died not long after the first battles took place, he was succeed by Umar ibn khattab, Umar was a big man, a martial artist in his youth and the head of the Muslim police force during Muhammad’s time he had a less then distinguished military career but was to prove his competence now. He reversed the ban on former the conscription of former rebels sending whole tribes to the battlefront with permission to settle on conquered land and he began to direct the campaign from medina every move of the Muslim armies was reported to him and he sent constant instructions informing the various commanders of their goals and their roles in the campaign and within a year the Persian capital had been sized and its armies humiliated on the field. He now turned his attentions to Syria and  the Romans here the situation was more complex the Muslim’s were supported by several roman governors and armies who followed the Christian sect of Arianism, which was similar enough to Islam that early byzantine sources refer to the Muslims as Arian heretics, and by the local population who belong to the miapshsite sect of Christianity but the Romans were Romans just as with Hannibal after every defeat the romans brought forth another army to replace the one lost.

In spite of the Roman tenacity the Romans were driven back to Asia minor (modern turkey) and lost the holy land, Syria, Egypt and north Africa but even in this state they refused every peace treaty Omar offered them and continuously sent out armies to re conquer what they lost prompting Omar to say “I wish there was wall of fire to separate us from the Romans”. Umar’s armies continued their conquest reaching India in the east and Spain in the west. Umar was quick to curtail excessive expansion however demanding retreats from territories which would be too expensive to hold, established military colonies in those he expected to hold (such as kufa in Iraq and medina in Spain) and he cracked down heavily on corruption, when allegations arose he never failed to order an investigation heaven help you if it had been proven correct and if had been proven false the whistle blower would have been lashed for slander when offered an increase in salary by the governing council from Abu Bakr’s salary of one sheep per week to two he refused, he reinstituted universal basic income which had been one of Mohammed’s policies which had been discontinued. By the end of his 20 year reign Umar had seen the seen the Muslim’s grow from a persecuted sect, of which he was once  the chief persecutor for several years, to a worldwide empire. He was succeed by Uthman ibn affan a son in law of Mohammed, a compromise candidate, Ali the other son in law of Mohammed had been loudly declaring since the ascension of Abu Bakr that only he had the right to be caliph  and that after him his sons, Mohammed grandsons, would rule in contrast to Abu Bakr and Umar who believed that any Muslim could become ruler, tensions had been reaching a boiling point for a while as ali’s partisans campaigned even louder for his accession and due to his well-known piety, impressive and chivalrous  military record and cryptic philosophical musings some of his followers began to worship him as a God or incarnation of god, they were of course punished by Ali himself, they were also several other candidates who espoused themselves to the high office and each with his own faction. Uthman had no faction and was respected by all Muslim’s for his role in financing Mohammed’s campaigns despite belonging to the tribe which led the anti-Muslim alliance, so he became caliph immediately there was controversy  ‘Uthman was rich and so he rejected to take a salary from the Muslim treasury sending what was owed to him to charity and instead built a palace out of his own pocket, this offend many who noted that niter Mohammed nor Abu Bakr or Umar had lived in palace or indeed owned a bed or even a door.  

Uthman ignored their complaints he was more concern with the unstable  economy of the Muslim empire and began to enact several reforms which would stabilize the situation and standardized measurements and exchange rates (these are still used today in sharia compliant countries) in the next review of the governors he appoint his finically savvy relatives to important positions, unfortunate most of these governors proved corrupt and when several complaints were sent to him he ignored them,  this prompted a riot during which he was killed, rioters then marched to Ali’s house and declared him ruler which he accepted.  

Immediately the Muslim empire fell into civil war. The now “Imam”(leader) Ali defeated his enemies in Arabia, showing the upmost chivalry, then marched to Syria were he camped at the plains of stiffen were he refused to destroy the watering holes of his enemies as this was of course dishonorable,  this would prove to be a mistake however the battle of the plains of stiffen would last a full year and saw almost 100,000 dead by the time imam Ali won, as imam Ali army pursued the rebels from the field the rebels raised copies of the Quran atop spears and demanded a truce, when imam Ali refused his army mutinied and forced a truce which the rebels used as an opportunity for trickery. They said that both side would renounce their leaders and elect new ones to his ali’s army agreed when imam Ali’s army renounced him the rebel army refused to renounce their leader ‘Uthman’s cousin muhawyiah.

Ali accepted this and began to return home part of his army however refused and declared that both Imam Ali and muhawyiah were disbelievers and attacked them they succeeded in Killing imam Ali thereby ending the era of the Rashidun. Muhawyiah became caliph afterward and while he ruled well his successors were more concerned with debauchery than ruling, the simple piety and plain lifestyle of the Rasidun was abandoned in favor of lavish buildings and palaces with itineraries such as 3000 roman slave girls, 5000ft of blue carpet 3 miles of garden, tall towers, extremely oversized buildings, grand boasting titles, fabulous dresses and uniforms etc.   They soon forbade non-Arabs from participating in government and treated them as second class citizens something Mohammed had implicitly warned against during his rule. The Rashidun had secured an empire that stretched from Spain to India from Yemen to Armenia they even managed to secure the loyalty of the local population and Over time the way of the Rashidun became a by word for just and fair rule their personal faults were flossed over and they were sanitized, its telling that every Muslim government declares itself in some way, no matter how falsely, to be a return to the era of the Rashidun.


Last edited by BOSSMANTOSSCAN on Sun Jul 16, 2017 10:53 am; edited 1 time in total
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Re: The Rashidun caliphs biographies

Post by BOSSMANTOSSCAN on Tue Jul 11, 2017 12:56 pm

also feel free to criticize and add anything i have missed.
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Re: The Rashidun caliphs biographies

Post by BOSSMANTOSSCAN on Wed Jul 12, 2017 12:27 pm

ABU BAKR Part one

Abu Bakr as Sadiq depending on how one defines Islam he is either a saint or a tyrant to Sunnis he is considered the model exemplar of a wartime leader and to Shia he was usurper and hated oppressor, who is still ritually cursed, but to understand the truth of the matter we must look objectively at history, we must look at the man, hence this short and certainly non-exhaustive history of Abu bakr

Abu Bakr is a kunyah, a nickname, meaning he who care cares for baby camel it reflected how his close friends saw him as a kind-hearted fellow perhaps a bit too soft but when pushed his rage was inexorable. His given name was abudul-kaba and he was from the tribe of Quraysh and the sub tribe Tayum He could trace his linage to Adanan and from thence through Abraham to Adam.

We have no certain date for when he was born but we do know the name of his parents, Uthman ibn Amir and Umm al Khayr, like most nobility they were cousins and their marriage served to bring two sides of the tribe even closer together. We know that Uthman ibn Amir was moderately wealthy what we might consider upper middle class today and his wife’s family certainly couldn’t have been less wealthy and they must have doted on the child the first one to survive past a few days. His childhood was most likely typical of Arabian nobles he would have cared for by his parents until age three or so and then sent to live with Bedouins. Mecca was a fast-paced multicultural city and carried with the same risk and attractions, firstly new diseases were always cropping up and could be fairly fatal to a child, secondly local Arab culture was slowly disappearing under the tide of multiculturalism but the Bedouins with their distain of settle life still remained culturally pure and thirdly the Bedouin accent remained pure. After a few years the child would be returned to their family hopefully disease free, immersed in traditional culture and speaking a crisp Received Arabic.

At some point in his youth he met another young boy, a down on his luck noblemen son named Mohammed they would quickly become fast friends and remain as such all their lives. Like Mohammed we have very little evidence for their years leading up to the declaration of prophethood but we can guess that like other boys he learned wrestling, swordsmanship poetry, reading, writing, counting, his family genealogy and no doubt helped his father with the store. We know that they both took part in at least one expedition to Syria at age 12, were they met a rather interesting monk, and he may have taken part of the “evil war” a series of raids which took place when he was around nine and ended when he was 19. We do start to get solid evidence with the formation of the righteous league, essential a co-op by small scale merchants to protect themselves and foreign creditors against monopoly by big shot nobles. we know he travelled around Arabia and became an expert in tribal genealogies and that his business was worthy 20,000 dirhams, by contrast the salary of Persian nobles was one hundred thousand dirhams, after this he essential goes dark, most likely because he just a normal merchant for the next 20 or so years.
The turning point in his life would come when one day Mohammed came to him, asked to speak in private and began explaining, that the gods their tribe worshiped were not in fact real rather they were simply wood and stone figurines, he explained that the one true God was the God of the Romans and the Jews and then he dropped the metaphorical bomb shell, while meditating the arch angle Gabriel had come to him and declared him to be a prophet. Mohammed no doubt looked nervous and one can only imagine the halting speech as he told this to his dearest friend, the more so because at this stage Mohammed himself was not very sure that he wasn’t mad or being tricked by someone or something. To his credit Abu Bakr didn’t hesitate he immediately embraced Islam, It is perhaps good to dwell a little on Abu Bakr’s personality when Abu Bakr believes something he puts his whole heart and soul into it he is not a man for half measures. He wasted no time in proclaiming the message to both his family and friends. At this stage, the Quran consisted of two passages. “Read in the name of the lord who created from a clot of blood, read and know the lord is good for he taught humanity with pen and you in the clock wake up and warn the people, glorify the lord and purify your clothing, wrath flees never to return for the lord endures”. Yet these spread quickly through the slave population of Mecca and other ayahs soon followed with common topics that God was good and that he was powerful, that humanity should be thank full for God’s bounties and that Judgement day was coming. Then the new religion began to become popular among the younger nobles and among the Christian Romans and Ethiopians who resided in Mecca, in all the majority of converts were under 30 and from the weaker sub tribes or slaves and other foreigners. At first the new religion was a curiosity among the people of mecca, Arabs harmlessly larping at being Jews perhaps, but that initial tolerance soon left when it became apparent that Mohammed was dead set on repudiating idol worship. Suspected Muslims were attacked in the street or placed under house arrest (one fellow for near 10 years) they were showered with verbal abuses and all manner of threats, for the Arab Muslims they had little to fear any harm done to them would be repaired with interest by their clan, but for slaves and merchants the gloves were off several were killed and others tortured. One slave an Ethiopian named Bial ibn Rabah was placed in metal armor and left to cook on the sand when he refused to give up his faith a large rock was put on his chest and the another, so as to crush him to death, Abu Bakr seeing his ran to the scene and offered a thousand dirhams for Bial’s freedom. It was joked afterwards by the pagans that Bial was worth less than 30 dirhams to which Abu Bakr replied he would spend much more to save a Muslim from the foes grasp. The world is never static and while the Islam was taking its first steps the world exploded into world war the romans and the Persians were at each other throats again and this time it was no mere border skirmish Persian troops entered Jerusalem, 300 miles from the border, and began a general massacre of Christians at the same time Persian armies had broken through the south Anatolian defensive line, taking aim at Constantinople. In addition, various steep tribes perhaps spurred on by Persian gold launched an attack in the Balkans and in Italy roman holding so painstaking recovered by Justinian came under attack. In the mist of this trouble the Romans decided that a civil war would not add, much, to their miseries. It was also at this time that Quranic verses were reveled stating that the Romans have been defeated in the nearest land but in a few years, they would recover, this became the source of much ridicule by the armchair generals among the Meccans, Abu Bakr challenged them to a bet he stated putting down a sum of money that the ayah would be proven correct.

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Post by BOSSMANTOSSCAN on Wed Jul 19, 2017 9:49 pm

abu bakr cont---

The hijrah
At this time the government of mecca put more and more restrictions on Muslims forbidden people to sell food to Muslims or to sub tribes suspected of helping Muslims. like wise public beatings and other humiliations became common, an entire Muslim family was killed, Mohammed himself was stoned and people were tortured until they renounced their faith. In such conditions, it is no surprise that many Muslims choose to emigrate chiefly to Ethiopia where they were greeted as fellow Christians. But Mohammed hoped that the Muslims would be accepted closer to home so he met with delegations from various tribes the most promising of which were two tribes from Yatrib in the north.
A second delegation of Yathrib arrived soon after and another oath was sworn, this time it was a battle oath, once news of the oath had spread the Muslim inhabitants of mecca quietly made preparations to leave and the pagan inhabitants made every attempt to stop them. Patrols were set up on the outskirts of the city and Muslim houses were set under watch, but every day another Muslim or a family slip out and made the long journey to Yathrib.

Mohammed was put under watch a force of seven qurashi youth shadowing his every move, Mohammed took advantage of this, he began to visit Abu Bakr’s house every day at noon. This carried on for weeks and eventually the agents, in boredom, stopped following him when he was able to conform that he was being followed he made a bee line for Abu Bakr house. When he arrived, it was no were near noon Abu Bakr had been waiting for this day, he had already packed supplies for the journey, he duh a small hole or tunnel in his wall and through this the two made their escape. They were only half way to Yathrib when the alarm went out, Mohammed has Escaped, immediately large search parties went out and a professional tracker was quickly hired. Mohammed and Abu Bakr barely escaped capture but made it into Yathrib, they were met by a large cheering crowd and by the remaining nobles from the two tribes who welcomed them as brothers. When the celebrations had died down Mohammed and Abu Bakr found that while the regular folk from the tribes, who were now called the Ansar, thought of Mohammed as their king the few remaining nobles had no intention of handing over power. This was taken in stride however and a constitution was drafted that made Mohammed king in all but name, this was signed by all leaders including the Jewish ones. The next two years were spent in stringing together the machinery of government, by establishing taxes, laws, compulsory military training, the first mosques, Yathrib was renamed medina ti nawbawi or Prophetstown and so forth. The only major things that happened were the conversion a rabbi, which caused a shitstrom, and the failure of several military expeditions aimed at the meccans caravans Abu Bakr was present at the battle of Badr, at Uhud and at the siege of medina and the following scourging of the Traitorous Jewish tribes. After these event, he went to seek the hand of Mohammed’s daughter, Fatima, but she refused and married Ali ibn Talib. Perhaps to south Abu Bakr’s feeling Mohammed married abu bakrs daughter Ayisha, there is a diffidence of options on if she was nine or 19 at the time of marriage. The war had turned in the favor of the Muslims and the meccans were soon forced to surrender and with their fall came the submission of the entire Arabian pensulia, as already noted abu bakr was skilled in the genealogies of the various tribes a critical factor in Arab diplomacy. He and Mohammed met with thousands of delegates and accepted pledges of loyalty and promises of assistance, all of which Mohammed would need for he had set eyes north on the decaying edifices of roman and Persia. But Mohammed was fated never to see the great conquest his armies would make he died soon after and the Muslim world was thrown in to chaos. Almost immediately the tribes declared their independence and within medina the people were full of shock, Umar al khattab for one refused to believe Mohammed was dead and went around sword drawn threating anyone who said so.

Mohammed’s family withdrew into isolation and refused to leave their houses for over a week, the Ansar once split into two tribes, while at the same time the Muslim army that had been gathered on the the of town began to disapte. Abu Bakr was watching all he and his best friend had worked for over twenty years disappear, but he was not about to let it. He calmed down Umar and marched to the delegation the Ansar nobility where he delivered his famous speech, begging with these words, Mohammed is dead so who ever worshipped Mohammed may go but whoever worships God, know that God is alive and will never die. He then put forth himself as the new leader of the Muslims, as was the customs of the Arabs this was voted on by the men of property, when he was accepted he gave this speech.
O people have been appointed as your ruler even thought I am far from the best of you. If I do good help me in it, if I do evil then correct me. Truthfulness is the same as for filling one’s word and bond and lying is the same as treachery. The weak among is strong in my eyes, until by Godswill I return to him his dues. The strong is weak in my eyes until by Godswill I take what they have stolen from others. No people on this earth abandons Jihad except that God humiliates them and no people indulge in profligacy except that God punishes them severely. Obey me as long as I obey God and his messenger, and if I disobey then I have no right to demand your obedience. Stand up, let us pray, may God have mercy on us.
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